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Perbedaan anatomi antara herbivora dan omnivora

Perbedaan anatomi antara herbivora dan omnivora



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Apa perbedaan herbivora vs omnivora? Maksud saya bukan perbedaan pola makan (jelas), tetapi perbedaan fisik.

Misalnya, herbivora afaik memiliki saluran pencernaan yang lebih panjang daripada karnivora; kemudian ada perbedaan dalam gigi, kepemilikan naluri karnivora atau kekurangannya, dll.

Tapi di mana perbedaan antara herbivora dan omnivora? Apakah ada perbedaan yang jelas, atau apakah batas antara kedua kelompok agak kabur? Atau apakah omnivora hanya herbivora yang kurang pilih-pilih?

EDIT

Seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam komentar, kalimat terakhir sepertinya menanyakan perbedaan pola makan. Hal ini tidak dimaksudkan untuk; satu-satunya perbedaan yang saya ketahui adalah pola makan, jadi ini menanyakan apakah ada perbedaan anatomis, atau makanan adalah satu-satunya. Yaitu. apakah mereka secara anatomis mirip, dan tidak dapat dibedakan dengan cara yang sama seperti herbivora dan karnivora; maka apakah mereka herbivora yang tidak keberatan makan makanan non-tanaman untuk sementara waktu?

Saya harap ini berfungsi untuk memperjelas.

EDIT 2

Saya menyadari bahwa pertanyaan ini cukup luas, jadi sementara saya mencoba untuk mendapatkan pandangan yang baik dari gambaran yang lebih besar, sebagian jawaban akan lebih dari diterima!


"Apakah ada perbedaan yang jelas, atau apakah batas antara kedua kelompok agak kabur? Atau apakah omnivora hanya herbivora yang kurang pilih-pilih?"

Setelah dipikir-pikir, saya akan menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan itu.

"Perbatasan" antara herbivora dan omnivora sangat kabur di antara mamalia, burung, dan setidaknya beberapa reptil. Amfibi adalah suguhan - mereka semua karnivora. Di antara reptil, ular secara eksklusif karnivora.

Kebanyakan kadal juga karnivora, meskipun ada beberapa herbivora. Saya bahkan tidak yakin tentang kadal omnivora.

Omnivora ada di seluruh peta. Jika beberapa digambarkan sebagai herbivora yang kurang pilih-pilih, yang lain dapat digambarkan sebagai karnivora yang kurang pilih-pilih.

Perhatikan bahwa spesies tertentu dapat menjadi herbivora, karnivora atau omnivora di bagian tertentu dari jangkauan mereka atau selama musim tertentu. Misalnya, beruang mungkin berpesta dengan salmon atau anak sapi berkuku saat mereka tersedia tetapi menghabiskan sebagian besar waktu mereka mencari makan untuk tanaman dan hewan kecil.

Omnivora yang paling dikenal termasuk manusia, babi, rakun, dan (beberapa) tikus, jadi Anda mungkin mencari beberapa kesamaan di antara spesies ini. Manusia dan rakun adalah plantigrade, misalnya (seperti beruang - dan juga tikus, saya percaya). Manusia, babi, dan tikus dikenal karena kecerdasannya. Babi dan tikus sangat populer dalam penelitian medis, karena beberapa alasan menarik.

Hal lain yang perlu diperhatikan adalah spesies yang menentang kecenderungan diet umum kelompok mereka. Misalnya, panda raksasa dan burung nasar kelapa adalah herbivora, sedangkan burung nasar lainnya adalah karnivora dan kebanyakan beruang adalah omnivora - kecuali beruang kutub.

Ada aturan umum lainnya; omnivora mungkin lebih jarang di habitat yang kurang tanaman. Saya tidak berpikir ada mamalia laut yang dianggap sebagai omnivora, misalnya. Semua cetacea (paus dan lumba-lumba) adalah karnivora, seperti berang-berang laut. Namun, sirene (manate, dugong, dll.) semuanya herbivora.

Itu mungkin memberi Anda sesuatu untuk dikerjakan.

EDIT: Yang mengejutkan saya, ada beberapa sumber bagus yang membandingkan omnivora dan karnivora. Lihat Anatomi Perbandingan Makan. Sumbernya mungkin terlihat sedikit terkelupas, tetapi terlihat sangat akurat bagi saya. (Ini menggunakan beberapa contoh yang sama dengan yang saya lakukan. ;))

Yang mengejutkan saya, tampaknya ada korelasi yang lebih erat antara karnivora-omnivora daripada herbivora-omnivora. Namun perlu diingat bahwa artikel ini tampaknya berfokus pada mamalia. Dengan demikian, perbedaan rahang dan gigi hampir tidak dapat diterapkan pada burung.

Mengenai komentar saya tentang kecerdasan omnivora, lihat Kecerdasan, Evolusi Otak Manusia dan Pola Makan, meskipun saya tidak dapat menjamin keakuratannya. Kecerdasan dapat dikaitkan dengan diet; dibutuhkan lebih banyak kekuatan otak untuk menangkap mangsa yang aktif daripada menyelinap di rerumputan, misalnya. Ini akan menunjukkan lebih banyak organisme "cerdas" di antara karnivora.

Kecerdasan juga dapat dikaitkan dengan perbedaan anatomi, seperti bipedalisme, ibu jari yang berlawanan, dan penglihatan binokular.

Faktanya, sebagian besar hewan yang terkenal dengan kecerdasannya tampak seperti karnivora atau omnivora. Pengecualian termasuk gorila, orangs, owa dan panda raksasa.

Sedangkan paus, serigala/anjing, cumi-cumi dan gurita adalah hewan karnivora. Gagak dan gagak - dianggap sebagai salah satu burung paling cerdas - adalah omnivora, seperti juga manusia, simpanse, babi, dan setidaknya beberapa tikus. Sejauh yang saya tahu, babi umumnya dianggap sebagai ungulata paling cerdas (mamalia berkuku); mereka juga di antara sedikit yang omnivora. (Saya tidak bisa memikirkan ungulata omnivora lainnya begitu saja.)

Babi juga lebih kompak daripada ungulata lainnya, dengan tubuh kekar dan kaki pendek. Faktanya, tampaknya tidak banyak omnivora berkaki panjang (setidaknya di antara mamalia). Demikian pula, sebagian besar (jika tidak semua) burung berkaki panjang adalah karnivora (atau insektivora, vermivora, dll.).


Herbivora, Omnivora, dan Karnivora

Hewan memperoleh nutrisi mereka dari konsumsi organisme lain. Tergantung pada makanannya, hewan dapat diklasifikasikan ke dalam kategori berikut: pemakan tumbuhan (herbivora), pemakan daging (karnivora), dan mereka yang memakan tumbuhan dan hewan (omnivora). Nutrisi dan makromolekul yang ada dalam makanan tidak langsung dapat diakses oleh sel. Ada sejumlah proses yang memodifikasi makanan di dalam tubuh hewan untuk membuat nutrisi dan molekul organik dapat diakses untuk fungsi seluler. Ketika hewan berevolusi dalam kompleksitas bentuk dan fungsi, sistem pencernaan mereka juga telah berevolusi untuk mengakomodasi berbagai kebutuhan makanan mereka.


Perbedaan anatomi antara herbivora dan omnivora - Biologi

Omnivora
Herbivora
Karnivora
Pengumpan Suspensi
Pengumpan Substrat
Pengumpan Cairan
Pengumpan Massal

Gambaran
1. Tertelan
2. Pencernaan
Mekanis
Bahan kimia
3. Penyerapan
4. Eliminasi

Kompartemen
Hewan yang lebih rendah
Mulut
Rongga gastrovaskuler
Saluran pencernaan
Tekak
Kerongkongan
Tanaman
Ampela (perut)
Dubur
Membandingkan hewan

Perjalanan"
Sistem Manusia
Rongga mulut

Gigi (mekanik)
Air liur (kimia)
amilase
Lidah (mekanis/sensorik)
bolus
menelan
Kerongkongan
Peristaltik sebagai fenomena
Peran sfingter jantung

Perut
Struktur (otot/permukaan A)
Kelenjar lambung (HCl [pH 2], lendir)
Pepsinogen (mencerna protein)
kimus asam
Bisul (tautan ke Helicobacter pylori)
Sfingter pilorus

Usus Kecil
Duodenum - Tautan ke
Kandung empedu (empedu)
Mengemulsi lemak (tidak ada aksi enzimatik)
Pankreas (enzim basa)
Enzim lendir
Struktur
Lipatan mikrovili vili
Luas permukaan yang sangat besar
Vili dan sirkulasi
Penyerapan nutrisi dan air
Karbohidrat
Protein
Lemak
Rute transportasi

Usus Besar
Sekum (peran dalam herbivora)
Bandingkan herbivora dan karnivora
Hewan ruminansia (misalnya sapi)
Lampiran
Penyerapan air
Kotoran
Peran bakteri di usus besar
Dubur
Peran infeksi (diare)
Berak

Nutrisi
Piramida makanan
Makro dan mikromineral
Senyawa organik (blok bangunan dari makromolekul)
Asam amino esensial
Asam lemak esensial
Kekurangan protein
Energi
kalori sebagai ukuran asupan
Tingkat asupan harian
vitamin
larut dalam lemak (A,D,E,K)
larut dalam air (B, C)


Apa Itu Hewan Ruminansia?

Ini adalah hewan dengan sistem pencernaan yang kompleks. Mereka memiliki perut empat bilik yang dirancang untuk mencerna tekstur makanan yang berbeda.

Mereka juga diklasifikasikan sebagai herbivora. Contoh hewan tersebut adalah sapi, domba, kambing, rusa, kerbau, dan jerapah.

Contoh dari empat kompartemen lambung adalah rumen, retikulum, omasum, dan abomasum.

Rumen, retikulum, dan omasum dirancang untuk mencerna serat keras melalui proses fermentasi. Abomasum bertanggung jawab untuk mensekresikan enzim pencernaan.

Keunggulan Hewan Ruminansia

  1. Meningkatkan status kesehatan hewan
  2. Meningkatkan homogenitas dalam campuran terpadu
  3. Memfasilitasi hidrogenasi parsial lemak dalam bahan
  4. Pengurangan faktor antinutrisi pada kacang-kacangan dan tanaman protein
  5. Pengurangan fraksi degradasi pati ruminal

Kekurangan Hewan Ruminansia

  1. Memerlukan energi yang besar
  2. Komponen vital dihancurkan selama pencernaan.
  3. Kekurangan enzim pencernaan

Gigi Herbivora, Karnivora, dan Omnivora

Semua hewan memiliki gigi yang beradaptasi untuk memakan jenis makanan tertentu. Misalnya, herbivora, karena mereka pemakan tumbuhan, memiliki geraham yang kuat dan rata yang dibuat untuk menggiling daun dan gigi taring kecil atau tidak ada. Karnivora, pemakan daging dari dunia hewan, memiliki gigi taring yang sangat jelas untuk merobek daging, dikombinasikan dengan jumlah geraham yang terkadang terbatas. Omnivora, karena mereka memakan daging dan tumbuhan, memiliki kombinasi gigi depan yang tajam dan geraham untuk menggiling.

Herbivora memiliki gigi yang sangat khusus untuk memakan tumbuhan. Karena materi tumbuhan seringkali sulit diurai, geraham herbivora lebih lebar dan rata, dirancang untuk menggiling makanan, dan membantu pencernaan. Gigi seri herbivora tajam untuk merobek tanaman, tetapi mungkin tidak ada di rahang atas dan bawah. Rusa ekor putih adalah contoh sempurna dari herbivora yang hanya memiliki gigi seri bawah dan rahang atas kaku yang membantu merobek tanaman. Banyak hewan, seperti kuda dan sapi, memiliki rahang yang mampu bergerak ke samping. Gajah adalah herbivora, dan gigi seri mereka tidak seperti yang ditemukan pada hewan lain. Kedengarannya aneh, gading sebenarnya adalah gigi, gigi seri, yang telah berkembang menjadi jenis alat yang berbeda, sering digunakan untuk pertahanan.

Adaptasi Hewan– Panduan bergambar ini membandingkan gigi herbivora dan karnivora.

Apa itu Herbivora?– Pelajari tentang di mana herbivora cocok dalam rantai makanan, serta jenis makanan apa yang mungkin mereka makan.

Herbivora: Gigi untuk Merumput- Departemen Dalam Negeri AS menjelaskan karakteristik herbivora, dan di mana mereka cocok dalam ekosistem.

NatureWorks– Pelajari bagaimana herbivora bisa berbeda satu sama lain, meskipun mereka semua memakan tumbuhan.

Karnivora memiliki satu set gigi yang sangat berbeda dari herbivora’. Ini masuk akal, karena mereka juga memiliki pola makan yang berbeda. Karnivora akan menggunakan giginya untuk membunuh mangsa sebelum memakannya. Gigi seri yang tajam dan gigi taring yang runcing dirancang dengan sempurna baik untuk melumpuhkan maupun untuk makan. Sebuah gigi taring dapat dengan mudah diidentifikasi, karena lebih panjang, gigi runcing terletak di kedua sisi gigi seri. Geraham lebih sedikit jumlahnya daripada hewan lain, terutama karena begitu banyak pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh gigi di bagian depan mulut. Meskipun kehadiran gigi taring tidak menjamin bahwa hewan adalah karnivora, ini merupakan indikator bahwa daging adalah bagian dari makanan.

Web Keanekaragaman Hewan– Di sini, Anda dapat menemukan informasi tentang karnivora, termasuk wilayah jelajah, habitat, dan keanekaragamannya.

Pengantar Karnivora– Halaman ini berisi informasi tentang karnivora, mulai dari sejarah fosilnya hingga sistematika dan morfologinya.

Apa itu Karnivora?– Di sini, Anda akan menemukan informasi tentang karnivora dan peran mereka dalam ekosistemnya.

Besar Itu Tidak Buruk– Karnivora besar menderita efek dari hilangnya jangkauan, dan mungkin mendapat manfaat dari upaya yang ditujukan untuk pelestarian.

Manusia adalah omnivora, artinya kita makan berbagai makanan, termasuk daging dan tumbuhan. Pandangan sekilas ke gigi Anda sendiri akan memberi Anda gambaran tentang berbagai bentuk dan ukuran gigi yang dimiliki omnivora. Gigi manusia tidak menunjukkan persis apa yang akan Anda lihat di mulut semua omnivora. Setiap omnivora akan memiliki gigi yang secara khusus disesuaikan dengan pola makan yang dikonsumsi hewan tersebut. Hewan dengan gigi seperti manusia yang menggunakan geraham mereka untuk menggiling dan gigi seri dan gigi taring mereka untuk merobek atau merobek dikatakan memiliki gigi heterodonsia. Setiap gigi dirancang untuk peran tertentu dalam memproses makanan yang dimakan. Gigi homodont, ditemukan pada kebanyakan reptil omnivora, terjadi ketika semua gigi memiliki ukuran dan bentuk yang relatif sama. Gigi ini lebih banyak digunakan untuk memperoleh makanan daripada untuk memproses makanan tersebut.

Apakah Manusia Omnivora?– Halaman ini memuat informasi mengenai kecenderungan oportunistik omnivora untuk makan apa pun yang tersedia saat lapar menyerang.

Omnivora- Ini adalah pengantar omnivora, bersama dengan penjelasan tentang bagaimana beberapa hewan dapat memulai hidup sebagai herbivora dan kemudian menjadi omnivora di kemudian hari.

You Eat What?- Halaman ini membahas perbedaan antara omnivora, herbivora, dan karnivora, termasuk di mana mereka menemukan makanannya.

Bagaimana Menjadi Omnivora yang Sehat– Halaman ini mengeksplorasi apakah ada pilihan yang memungkinkan kesehatan yang lebih baik saat makan sebagai omnivora.

Hewan tertentu dilengkapi dengan gigi yang cocok untuk konsumsi makanan tertentu. Karnivora, herbivora, dan omnivora mungkin memiliki beberapa tumpang tindih dalam ukuran dan bentuk gigi, tetapi melihat semua gigi di rahang akan memberi Anda gambaran yang baik tentang jenis makanan yang diandalkan setiap hewan. Dimungkinkan untuk mengidentifikasi binatang hanya dengan melihat tengkorak dan penempatan giginya.


Omnivora atau Herbivora?

Sebagai manusia, kita biasanya menerima bahwa kita bisa makan apa saja, dan karena itu kita adalah omnivora.

Namun, ketika Anda membandingkan gigi dan sistem pencernaan karnivora, omnivora, dan herbivora, yang muncul adalah kebenaran bahwa, secara anatomis dan fisiologis, kami memiliki sedikit kesamaan dengan karnivora dan omnivora, dan bahwa kami sebenarnya memiliki karakteristik klasik herbivora.

Dalam posting ini kita akan menggali jauh ke dalam topik kontroversial omnivora vs herbivora.

Tapi pertama-tama, mari kita periksa apa itu herbivora, omnivora, dan karnivora. Karena saya tidak ingat pernah mendengar diskusi tentang apa arti istilah-istilah ini tumbuh dewasa. Pertama kali kata "herbivora" mulai memiliki arti bagi saya adalah tepat setelah saya menjadi vegan dan saya mengetahui bahwa anatomi manusia sebenarnya paling cocok untuk memakan tumbuhan.

Karnivora adalah hewan yang mendapatkan semua nutrisi dan kalori dari mengkonsumsi daging dan organ hewan lain. Beberapa contoh hewan karnivora termasuk singa, harimau, puma, rubah, coyote, elang, burung nasar, paus, hiu, dan lumba-lumba.

Omnivora adalah hewan yang mendapatkan makanannya dari sumber nabati dan hewani. Beberapa contoh omnivora adalah beruang, anjing, babi, rakun, luak, oposum, tikus, mencit, gagak, angsa, dan burung camar.

Herbivora adalah hewan yang berevolusi untuk memakan makanan nabati sebagai sumber nutrisi dan kalori utama mereka. Beberapa contohnya adalah gajah, badak, jerapah, kuda nil, badak, kuda, rusa, domba, koala, kakatua, mackaw, dan parkit, serta burung beo.

Primata – kerabat terdekat kita di dunia hewan – juga termasuk dalam kategori ini. Gorila, orangutan, simpanse, dan bonobo memakan tanaman 95-99%, sisanya kebanyakan rayap atau serangga lainnya.

Ada banyak grafik yang beredar di internet membandingkan karakteristik fisik karnivora, omnivora, dan herbivora, dan semuanya pada dasarnya menyampaikan gagasan penghancur paradigma yang sama: bahwa manusia bukanlah omnivora, tetapi herbivora. Ini salah satu dari makalah Dr. Milton Mill, The Comparative Anatomy of Eating. Dan omong-omong, dia memiliki presentasi hebat yang tersedia di YouTube di mana dia menjelaskan perbedaan ini. Perhatikan bahwa bagan ini berhubungan secara khusus dengan mamalia.

Seperti yang dapat Anda lihat di bagan ini, ada banyak perbedaan antara diri kita sebagai manusia dan omnivora/karnivora. Berikut adalah beberapa yang utama:

  • Karnivora dan omnivora memiliki cakar – yang diketahui oleh siapa saja yang pernah dicakar oleh anjing atau kucing bisa sangat tajam. Cakar tajam ini memungkinkan mereka untuk menggali dan menangkap mangsanya dengan mudah.
  • Seperti primata (herbivora), kita manusia memiliki tangan yang kondusif untuk memetik sayuran dan buah-buahan.
  • Karnivora dan omnivora memiliki bukaan mulut yang besar dibandingkan dengan ukuran kepala lainnya. Lokasi sendi rahang mereka terletak di bidang molar (yaitu sejajar dengan gigi mereka).
  • Herbivora dan manusia memiliki bukaan mulut yang kecil dibandingkan dengan ukuran kepala kita yang lain. Lokasi sendi rahang kita berada di atas bidang molar (yaitu di atas gigi kita).

Mamalia memiliki beberapa jenis gigi yang berbeda: gigi taring, gigi seri, dan geraham. Berikut ciri-ciri dan perbedaannya:

  • Karnivora dan omnivora memiliki gigi taring yang panjang, tajam, dan melengkung.
  • Herbivora dan gigi taring kita pendek dan tumpul.
  • Karnivora dan omnivora memiliki gigi seri yang pendek dan runcing.
  • Herbivora dan gigi seri kami lebar, pipih, dan berbentuk sekop.
  • Karnivora dan omnivora memiliki geraham yang tajam, bergerigi, dan seperti bilah.
  • Herbivora dan geraham kita diratakan dengan tonjolan.

  • Karnivora dan omnivora memiliki rahang yang bergerak ke atas dan ke bawah dalam gerakan geser, dan tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk bergerak dari sisi ke sisi. Mereka bisa menelan makanan mereka utuh.
  • Ketika herbivora dan manusia makan, gigi kita bergerak maju mundur dalam gerakan lateral (sisi ke sisi) yang memungkinkan kita untuk menghancurkan dan menggiling makanan kita. Tidak seperti karnivora dan omnivora, kita harus mengunyah makanan kita secara ekstensif sebelum menelan.

Keasaman lambung

  • Pada skala 1 hingga 14, 1 bersifat asam, dan 14 bersifat basa, perut karnivora dan omnivora memiliki pH kurang dari 1 ketika mereka memiliki makanan di dalamnya. Hal ini memungkinkan tubuh mereka untuk memecah daging yang membusuk secepat mungkin.
  • Herbivora dan manusia, di sisi lain, memiliki pH lambung 4 hingga 5 dengan makanan di dalamnya.
  • Karnivora dan omnivora memiliki enzim yang disebut uricase yang membantu mereka memecah asam urat yang dihasilkan oleh konsumsi daging di dalam tubuh mereka. Manusia tidak memiliki uricase.
  • Herbivora dan manusia memiliki enzim pencerna karbohidrat, yang memungkinkan kita mengasimilasi nutrisi dari makanan nabati. Omnivora dan karnivora tidak memiliki enzim pencerna karbohidrat.

Usus halus

  • Usus halus hewan karnivora dan omnivora berukuran 3-6 kali panjang tubuhnya.
  • Usus halus herbivora 10-12+ kali panjang tubuhnya. Usus kecil kita 10-11 kali panjang tubuh kita.

Masih banyak lagi perbedaan yang menunjukkan bahwa manusia adalah herbivora alami. Ini hanya beberapa yang lebih jelas. Saya akan merekomendasikan untuk melihat video yang saya sertakan di bagian akhir untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang ini secara mendalam.

Daging tidak membuat kita pintar

Kami memiliki bukti bahwa manusia primitif, karena oportunistik, makan daging. Tetapi seperti yang dijelaskan oleh antropolog biologi Dr. Nathaniel Dominy dalam sebuah wawancara, daging adalah sumber makanan yang sangat tidak dapat diandalkan bagi manusia sehingga tidak menjadi bagian penting dari makanan kita sampai saat ini. Oleh karena itu, kemungkinan bahwa daging berperan dalam pergeseran kuantum besar-besaran dalam evolusi otak manusia sangat tipis. Kita tahu ini karena manusia masih mempertahankan karakteristik anatomi dan fisiologis herbivora.

Jadi jika kita tidak dirancang untuk mengkonsumsi daging hewan, apa efek dari konsumsi daging yang berlebihan terhadap tubuh kita?

Pada dasarnya, efeknya adalah parodi proporsi epik yang dapat diringkas dalam kata penyakit.

Secara khusus, "penyakit kemakmuran" atau "penyakit Barat / penyakit Barat." Masalah kesehatan ini disebut demikian karena hampir tidak ada sebelum akhir abad ke-19 ketika manusia di negara-negara industri modern beralih dari pola makan nabati ke pola makan hewani.

Dr. Michael Greger dari NutritionFacts.org menjelaskan bahwa penyakit kemakmuran bukanlah hal yang normal atau tak terhindarkan – mereka adalah hasil dari peralihan dari pola makan vegan ke pola makan yang kaya akan makanan hewani:

“Untuk menemukan populasi yang hampir bebas dari penyakit kronis di usia tua, kita tidak perlu mundur sejuta tahun. Pada abad ke-20, jaringan rumah sakit misionaris di pedesaan Afrika hampir tidak menemukan penyakit arteri koroner, dan bukan hanya penyakit jantung, tetapi juga tekanan darah tinggi, stroke, diabetes, kanker umum, dan banyak lagi. Dalam arti tertentu, populasi di pedesaan Cina dan Afrika ini mengonsumsi jenis makanan yang telah kita makan selama 90% dari 20 juta tahun terakhir, pola makan yang hampir seluruhnya makanan nabati.”

Fakta bahwa orang Afrika tidak memiliki masalah kesehatan yang sama seperti yang kita lihat di Barat menguatkan temuan Dr. T. Colin Campbell yang ia publikasikan dalam The China Study. Dimulai pada awal tahun 70-an, Dr. Campbell mengambil bagian dalam Proyek China-Cornell-Oxford di China, studi nutrisi terbesar dan terlengkap yang pernah dilakukan, selama 20 tahun.

Dalam studi tersebut, mereka membandingkan penanda kesehatan untuk orang yang tinggal di daerah kota China dengan mereka yang hidup dengan pola makan pedesaan. Mereka yang tinggal di pusat kota memiliki sumber daya untuk mengonsumsi makanan yang lebih Barat, yang banyak mengandung daging dan susu. Mereka yang tinggal di pedesaan, di sisi lain, hanya memiliki akses ke sayuran dan biji-bijian untuk sebagian besar.

Temuan mengungkapkan bahwa orang-orang di daerah pedesaan, yang mengonsumsi makanan nabati, tidak menderita penyakit degeneratif kronis. Sebaliknya, orang-orang yang tinggal di kota memiliki masalah kesehatan yang sama – penyakit jantung, kanker, dan sebagainya – seperti yang dialami orang Amerika.

Penelitian Dr. Campbell seharusnya dipuji sebagai terobosan nutrisi dan medis, tetapi sangat subversif terhadap status quo sehingga dia diasingkan oleh komunitas medis.

Namun, upaya kompleks farmasi-medis untuk mendiskreditkan karyanya tidak menghalangi komitmen Dr. Campbell untuk mendidik orang tentang kebenaran. Selain terus berbicara di seluruh negeri dan luar negeri, Dr. Campbell telah tampil di beberapa film dokumenter, dan membintangi film dokumenter Forks Over Knives.

Makanan di masyarakat pedesaan

Mengapa orang-orang di komunitas pedesaan Asia dan Afrika, hingga saat ini, tidak menderita penyakit degeneratif kronis yang sama seperti yang kita lihat di barat?

Cara yang baik untuk memikirkannya adalah dengan mempertimbangkan betapa berbedanya restoran makanan etnis dengan makanan khas Amerika (hamburger, pizza, es krim).

Makanan "etnis": Meksiko, Cina, Jepang, Asia, Thailand, Etiopia, dan India, untuk beberapa jenis, sebagian besar adalah makanan nabati. Inilah sebabnya mengapa selalu ada lebih banyak pilihan untuk vegan di restoran semacam ini daripada di restoran biasa, di mana biasanya tidak ada.

Dari beberapa petualangan makan vegan saya di NY: Bunna (Etopia), Franchia (Korea), dan Hanna (Jepang)

Dalam budaya ini, makanan mereka sebagian besar terdiri dari sayuran, rempah-rempah, kacang-kacangan, dan biji-bijian hingga baru-baru ini. Daging, jika dikonsumsi, digunakan dengan hemat atau pada acara-acara khusus.

Di Eropa sebelum abad ke-19, hidangannya mungkin tidak begitu beraroma dan menarik, tetapi semuanya berbahan dasar tumbuhan. Pikirkan borsht (sup bit) di Rusia, ratatouille (sayuran rebus) di Prancis, colcannon (kentang tumbuk dengan kale atau kubis) di Irlandia, spageti dengan saus tomat di Italia, dan hummus dan roti pita di Yunani.

Memang benar bahwa orang tidak hidup selama itu. Wanita sering meninggal saat melahirkan, banyak anak tidak hidup melewati usia lima tahun, kami tidak memiliki obat untuk penyakit menular yang kami miliki sekarang, dan kami tidak memiliki banyak sanitasi. Selain itu, hidup jauh lebih sulit karena berbagai alasan.

Konon, ketika orang masih hidup, mereka tidak memiliki penyakit kronis dan degeneratif yang sama seperti yang kita lihat sekarang.

Mari kita uraikan beberapa cara utama daging hewan mempengaruhi kesehatan kita secara negatif:

Bikin badan asam

Produk hewani bersifat asam. Darah manusia perlu mempertahankan pH yang sedikit basa sekitar 7 agar berfungsi secara optimal. Ketika kita mengonsumsi terlalu banyak asam, tubuh kita perlu menemukan cara untuk menetralkannya – sehingga seringkali dapat menarik kalsium dan fosfor dari tulang, yang menyebabkan osteoporosis.

Penyebab arteri tersumbat

Arteri tersumbat atau aterosklerosis sebenarnya adalah istilah untuk menggambarkan penumpukan plak di dalam arteri koroner, membatasi aliran darah. Akumulasi plak ini terutama berasal dari kolesterol dan lemak jenuh. Makanan nabati tidak mengandung kolesterol dan sangat sedikit lemak jenuh.

Meningkatkan kolesterol jahat

Tingkat kolesterol rata-rata di AS adalah 210, tetapi tingkat kolesterol rata-rata vegan di AS adalah 135. Manusia tidak perlu mengonsumsi kolesterol karena kita membuatnya sendiri. Apa yang disebut sebagai “kolesterol baik” sebenarnya hanyalah kolesterol yang kita buat sendiri.

Meningkatkan risiko serangan jantung

Banyak dokter seperti Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn, mantan ketua Klinik Cleveland dan penulis buku Mencegah dan Menyembuhkan Penyakit Jantung, telah membuktikan bahwa penyakit jantung dapat disembuhkan jika kita menerapkan pola makan nabati. Saat ini, penyakit jantung membunuh 7 juta orang per tahun atau 1 orang setiap 4 detik, penyakit jantung akan jauh lebih jarang terjadi di dunia vegan.

Efek negatif dari mengkonsumsi makanan hewani tidak berhenti di sini. Karena ketika kita makan produk hewani daripada makanan nabati, kita kehilangan banyak hal bermanfaat.

Apa yang Anda lewatkan ketika Anda tidak mengonsumsi pola makan nabati?

Makanan nabati memiliki serat produk hewani tidak. Tidak seperti omnivora dan karnivora, herbivora dan manusia memiliki usus yang sangat panjang. Kita membutuhkan serat untuk membersihkan dan pada dasarnya menggosok dinding usus kecil kita yang panjang dan berkantung. Usus kecil kita memiliki rambut seperti jari yang disebut vili, yang membantu menyerap nutrisi dan memberikan luas permukaan keseluruhan lapangan tenis. Tetapi ketika produk hewani dikonsumsi, lapisan lemak menumpuk di dinding usus kecil dan usus besar kita. Seiring waktu, lapisan lemak ini menjadi tebal, dan usus kecil kita tidak dapat menyerap nutrisi dengan baik. Usus besar kita, yang juga dilapisi lapisan lemak ini, menjadi tempat berkembang biaknya penyakit, dan berpotensi memfasilitasi pertumbuhan kanker.

Fitokimia dan antioksidan

Makanan nabati kaya akan fitokimia dan antioksidan produk hewani tidak. Fitokimia (bahan kimia pada tumbuhan) dan antioksidan khususnya menetralisir radikal bebas dalam tubuh kita, yang dapat melemahkan tubuh dan sistem kekebalan tubuh kita. Richard Cutler, mantan direktur Anti-Aging Research di National Institute of Health, mengatakan, “Jumlah antioksidan yang kita pertahankan dalam jaringan tubuh kita berbanding lurus dengan berapa lama kita akan hidup.” Jika kita makan daging dan susu daripada tumbuhan, kita memastikan bahwa kita tidak akan menuai semua manfaat dari diet kaya antioksidan yang dapat meningkatkan vitalitas dan umur panjang kita.

Tubuh kita tahu berat yang dibutuhkan tubuh kita untuk berfungsi pada tingkat yang optimal. Namun, ia tidak tahu apa yang harus dibuat dari bahan bakar yang kita masukkan ke dalam diri kita yang tidak sesuai dengan fisiologi kita. Jadi jika kita makan makanan suboptimal, tubuh kita tidak akan memberi tahu kita "berhenti sekarang" atau "sudah cukup." Terlebih lagi, tubuh kita terus menerus kekurangan zat gizi mikro, sehingga kita merasakan dorongan untuk terus makan.

Sebaliknya, ketika kita mengonsumsi makanan nabati utuh, sistem pencernaan kita bekerja dengan bahan bakar yang paling mereka ketahui: serat dan fitonutrien.

Satu hal yang mulai saya pahami segera setelah menjadi vegan, tanpa mengetahui banyak tentang nutrisi pada saat itu, adalah bahwa makanan nabati dimetabolisme jauh berbeda dari produk hewani. Saya menemukan bahwa saya memiliki lebih banyak energi dan lebih sedikit mengidam di antara waktu makan, dan bahwa saya bisa makan lebih banyak daripada sebelumnya tanpa menambah berat badan.

Bagaimana dengan genetika?

Bertentangan dengan apa yang kedokteran arus utama ingin kita percayai, kebanyakan penyakit tidak ditentukan oleh genetika – mereka terutama ditentukan oleh pola makan dan gaya hidup.

Banyak dokter yang menganjurkan pola makan nabati termasuk Dr. T. Colin Campbell, Dr. Joel Furhman, Dr. Michael Greger, Dr. John MacDougall, Dr. Dean Ornish, dan Dr. Neal Barnard, sangat yakin bahwa kita perlu beralih dari pola makan nabati. sistem perawatan kesehatan yang berpusat pada farmasi ke sistem perawatan kesehatan yang berpusat pada nutrisi. Dalam film dokumenter Forks Over Knives, Dr. T. Colin Campbell berhipotesis bahwa kita akan memangkas biaya perawatan kesehatan sebesar 70 hingga 80% jika setiap orang menerapkan pola makan nabati.

Kenyataannya adalah, bagaimanapun, bahwa ada banyak kepentingan pribadi yang dipertaruhkan yang membuat promosi nutrisi nabati menjadi sulit. Industri farmasi, perusahaan asuransi kesehatan, dan rumah sakit mendapat keuntungan finansial dari model pengobatan gejala penyakit. Meskipun kelihatannya korup, orang sakit adalah bisnis besar. Ini bukan kesalahan individu itu sendiri, tetapi konsekuensi yang tak terhindarkan dari fakta bahwa perusahaan hanya memiliki satu kewajiban, yaitu meningkatkan laba mereka. Dan karena perubahan radikal menuju pengobatan preventif akan menghancurkan model bisnis mereka, kompleks farmasi-medis akan melakukan apa pun yang mereka bisa untuk menjaga keadaan tetap seperti semula.

Meskipun demikian, sebagian besar dokter memprioritaskan kesehatan pasien daripada persepsi mereka tentang keamanan kerja. Dan ketika mereka melihat manfaat dan potensi nutrisi nabati, banyak dokter membuka jalan mereka sendiri, yang terpisah dari dogma kaku sistem medis saat ini.

Berkaitan dengan debat herbivora vs omnivora, berikut adalah beberapa kutipan penting dari dokter tersebut:

“Ketika kita membunuh hewan untuk dimakan, mereka akhirnya membunuh kita karena daging mereka, yang mengandung kolesterol dan lemak jenuh, tidak pernah ditujukan untuk manusia, yang merupakan herbivora alami ” – William Clifford Roberts, MD, Editor -in-Chief American Journal of Cardiology

“Seperti yang dicatat oleh pemimpin redaksi American Journal of Cardiology 25 tahun yang lalu, tidak peduli berapa banyak lemak dan kolesterol yang dimakan karnivora, mereka tidak mengembangkan aterosklerosis [pengerasan arteri]. Sebaliknya, dalam beberapa bulan sebagian kecil dari kolesterol itu dapat mulai menyumbat arteri hewan yang beradaptasi dengan pola makan nabati” – Michael Greger, MD

Catatan: inilah mengapa menggunakan anjing dalam studi tentang penyakit jantung tidak pernah berhasil! Namun, para dokter dan ilmuwan telah bertahan dengan pertanyaan yang tidak masuk akal ini.

“Manusia memiliki struktur saluran pencernaan seperti herbivora ‘berkomitmen’. Umat ​​manusia tidak menunjukkan fitur struktural campuran yang diharapkan dan ditemukan pada omnivora anatomis seperti beruang dan rakun. Jadi, dari membandingkan saluran pencernaan manusia dengan saluran pencernaan karnivora, herbivora, dan omnivora, kita harus menyimpulkan bahwa saluran pencernaan manusia dirancang untuk diet makanan nabati murni” – Milton Mills, MD

“Manusia adalah herbivora alami seperti kera besar lainnya. Suka atau tidak, kami bukan anjing atau kucing. Kami adalah kera besar, dan makanan yang alami bagi kami adalah yang dapat kami petik dengan tangan kami” – Neal Barnard, MD

“Temuan sekarang menunjukkan bahwa hampir semua orang ketika tunduk pada makanan utuh, pola makan nabati (WFPB) sangat meningkatkan kesehatan mereka. Bagaimana mereka bisa merespons dengan cara ini jika tubuh mereka dimaksudkan untuk mengonsumsi makanan hewani?” – T. Colin Campbell, PhD

“Karena tidak ada kecocokan yang sangat kuat antara konsumsi daging dan peningkatan ukuran otak secara bertahap, para ilmuwan telah mencari pilihan lain. Dan mengingat bahwa makanan nabati merupakan bagian penting dari manusia modern yang berburu dan mengumpulkan makanan, uang ada pada makanan nabati dan pergeseran jenis makanan nabati sebagai faktor pendorong utama dalam meningkatkan ukuran otak” – Nathaniel Dominy , PhD

Hal lain yang perlu dipertimbangkan

  • Daging, organ, dan darah hewan mentah tidak disukai kebanyakan manusia. And yet, this is how actual carnivores and omnivores eat their prey.
  • Even if we did want to eat raw animal flesh, we wouldn’t be able to kill an animal without implements.
  • When we encounter an animal in the wild, our instincts are not to go up to them, attack them, and eat them.
  • On the other hand, we are naturally attracted to vibrant vegetables and fruit.

On a somewhat tangential note, I find it interesting that the bible basically lays out the idea that we are meant to be herbivores on page one:

In the Garden of Eden, God said to Adam and Eve: “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food.”

Image Source: Thriving Family

Getting back to the science, I leave you with some videos by doctors and researchers persuasively making the case that humans are herbivores.

Are humans designed to eat meat? Milton Mills, MD

The true human diet – Nathaniel Dominy, PhD

Food that kills – Dr. Michael Klaper, MD

Natasha Sherman interviews Joel Furhman, MD Part 1

Natasha Sherman interviews Joel Furhman, MD Part 2

Making heart attacks history – Caldwell Esselsyten, MD

Food as medicine: preventing and treating the most common diseases with diet – Michael Greger, MD

Resolving the healthcare crisis – T. Colin Campbell, MD

Humans are herbivores – William Clifford Roberts, MD, part 1/2

Humans are herbivores – William Clifford Roberts, MD, part 2/2

Dean Ornish, MD at TEDxSF

Documentaries

And if you haven’t already, be sure to watch the documentaries Eating and Forks Over Knives. Those are the two main ones I recommend, but there are many others including PlantPure Nation, Food Choices, and Eating You Alive.


The Comparative Anatomy of Eating

Ke: [email protected]
Subjek
: psychoceramics: The Comparative Anatomy of Eating
Dari: Ernie Karhu <ekarhu @ suneast.East.Sun.COM>
Tanggal: Tue, 26 Mar 1996 08:38:09 -0500
Sender: owner-psychoceramics

NOTE: this author uses the term "herbivora" in the most general sense of eating only plant material, and, unfortunately, does NOT differentiate between the more-restrictive, more common, application of the word "herbivora" to refer to grazing animalsonly e.g. cattle, sheep, goats, etc., which have quite special, unique adaptations necessary to eat and properly digest only grasses and leaves, and are therefore quite different in digestive physiology than the frugivorous (eats primarily fruit) apes, in which classification the human species really belongs.[LF]

The Comparative Anatomy of Eating


Humans are most often described as "omnivores". This classification is based on the "observation" that humans generally eat a wide variety of plant and animal foods. However, culture, custom and training are confounding variables when looking at human dietary practices. Thus, "observation" is not the best technique to use when trying to identify the most "natural" diet for humans. While most humans are clearly "behavioral" omnivores, the question still remains as to whether humans are anatomically suited for a diet that includes animal as well as plant foods.

A better and more objective technique is to look at human anatomy and physiology. Mammals are anatomically and physiologically adapted to procure and consume particular kinds of diets. (It is common practice when examining fossils of extinct mammals to examine anatomical features to deduce the animal's probable diet.) Therefore, we can look at mammalian carnivores, herbivores (plant-eaters) and omnivores to see which anatomical and physiological features are associated with each kind of diet. Then we can look at human anatomy and physiology to see in which group we belong.

Carnivores have a wide mouth opening in relation to their head size. This confers obvious advantages in developing the forces used in seizing, killing and dismembering prey. Facial musculature is reduced since these muscles would hinder a wide gape, and play no part in the animal's preparation of food for swallowing. In all mammalian carnivores, the jaw joint is a simple hinge joint lying in the same plane as the teeth. This type of joint is extremely stable and acts as the pivot point for the "lever arms" formed by the upper and lower jaws. The primary muscle used for operating the jaw in carnivores is the temporalis muscle. This muscle is so massive in carnivores that it accounts for most of the bulk of the sides of the head (when you pet a dog, you are petting its temporalis muscles). The "angle" of the mandible (lower jaw) in carnivores is small. This is because the muscles (masseter and pterygoids) that attach there are of minor importance in these animals. The lower jaw of carnivores cannot move forward, and has very limited side-to-side motion. When the jaw of a carnivore closes, the blade-shaped cheek molars slide past each other to give a slicing motion that is very effective for shearing meat off bone.

The teeth of a carnivore are discretely spaced so as not to trap stringy debris. The incisors are short, pointed and prong-like and are used for grasping and shredding. The canines are greatly elongated and dagger-like for stabbing, tearing and killing prey. The molars (carnassials) are flattened and triangular with jagged edges such that they function like serrated-edged blades. Because of the hinge-type joint, when a carnivore closes its jaw, the cheek teeth come together in a back-to-front fashion giving a smooth cutting motion like the blades on a pair of shears.

The saliva of carnivorous animals does not contain digestive enzymes. When eating, a mammalian carnivore gorges itself rapidly and does not chew its food. Since proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzymes cannot be liberated in the mouth due to the danger of autodigestion (damaging the oral cavity), carnivores do not need to mix their food with saliva they simply bite off huge chunks of meat and swallow them whole.

According to evolutionary theory, the anatomical features consistent with an herbivorous diet represent a more recently derived condition than that of the carnivore. Herbivorous mammals have well-developed facial musculature, fleshy lips, a relatively small opening into the oral cavity and a thickened, muscular tongue. The lips aid in the movement of food into the mouth and, along with the facial (cheek) musculature and tongue, assist in the chewing of food. In herbivores, the jaw joint has moved to position above the plane of the teeth. Although this type of joint is less stable than the hinge-type joint of the carnivore, it is much more mobile and allows the complex jaw motions needed when chewing plant foods. Additionally, this type of jaw joint allows the upper and lower cheek teeth to come together along the length of the jaw more or less at once when the mouth is closed in order to form grinding platforms. (This type of joint is so important to a plant-eating animal, that it is believed to have evolved at least 15 different times in various plant-eating mammalian species.) The angle of the mandible has expanded to provide a broad area of attachment for the well-developed masseter and pterygoid muscles (these are the major muscles of chewing in plant-eating animals). The temporalis muscle is small and of minor importance. The masseter and pterygoid muscles hold the mandible in a sling-like arrangement and swing the jaw from side-to-side. Accordingly, the lower jaw of plant-eating mammals has a pronounced sideways motion when eating. This lateral movement is necessary for the grinding motion of chewing.

The dentition of herbivores is quite varied depending on the kind of vegetation a particular species is adapted to eat. Although these animals differ in the types and numbers of teeth they posses, the various kinds of teeth when present, share common structural features. The incisors are broad, flattened and spade-like. Canines may be small as in horses, prominent as in hippos, pigs and some primates (these are thought to be used for defense) or absent altogether. The molars, in general, are squared and flattened on top to provide a grinding surface. The molars cannot vertically slide past one another in a shearing/slicing motion, but they do horizontally slide across one another to crush and grind. The surface features of the molars vary depending on the type of plant material the animal eats. The teeth of herbivorous animals are closely grouped so that the incisors form an efficient cropping/biting mechanism, and the upper and lower molars form extended platforms for crushing and grinding. The "walled-in" oral cavity has a lot of potential space that is realized during eating.

These animals carefully and methodically chew their food, pushing the food back and forth into the grinding teeth with the tongue and cheek muscles. This thorough process is necessary to mechanically disrupt plant cell walls in order to release the digestible intracellular contents and ensure thorough mixing of this material with their saliva. This is important because the saliva of plant-eating mammals often contains carbohydrate-digesting enzymes which begin breaking down food molecules while the food is still in the mouth.

Stomach and Small Intestine

Striking differences between carnivores and herbivores are seen in these organs. Carnivores have a capacious simple (single-chambered) stomach. The stomach volume of a carnivore represents 60-70% of the total capacity of the digestive system. Because meat is relatively easily digested, their small intestines (where absorption of food molecules takes place) are short -- about three to five or six times the body length. Since these animals average a kill only about once a week, a large stomach volume is advantageous because it allows the animals to quickly gorge themselves when eating, taking in as much meat as possible at one time which can then be digested later while resting. Additionally, the ability of the carnivore stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid is exceptional. Carnivores are able to keep their gastric pH down around 1-2 even with food present. This is necessary to facilitate protein breakdown and to kill the abundant dangerous bacteria often found in decaying flesh foods.

Because of the relative difficulty with which various kinds of plant foods are broken down (due to large amounts of indigestible fibers), herbivores have significantly longer and in some cases, far more elaborate guts than carnivores. Herbivorous animals that consume plants containing a high proportion of cellulose must "ferment" (digest by bacterial enzyme action) their food to obtain the nutrient value. They are classified as either "ruminants" (foregut fermenters) or hindgut fermenters. The ruminants are the plant-eating animals with the celebrated multiple-chambered stomachs. Herbivorous animals that eat a diet of relatively soft vegetation do not need a multiple-chambered stomach. They typically have a simple stomach, and a long small intestine. These animals ferment the difficult-to-digest fibrous portions of their diets in their hindguts (colons). Many of these herbivores increase the sophistication and efficiency of their GI tracts by including carbohydrate-digesting enzymes in their saliva. A multiple-stomach fermentation process in an animal which consumed a diet of soft, pulpy vegetation would be energetically wasteful. Nutrients and calories would be consumed by the fermenting bacteria and protozoa before reaching the small intestine for absorption. The small intestine of plant-eating animals tends to be very long (greater than 10 times body length) to allow adequate time and space for absorption of the nutrients.

The large intestine (colon) of carnivores is simple and very short, as its only purposes are to absorb salt and water. It is approximately the same diameter as the small intestine and, consequently, has a limited capacity to function as a reservoir. The colon is short and non-pouched. The muscle is distributed throughout the wall, giving the colon a smooth cylindrical appearance. Although a bacterial population is present in the colon of carnivores, its activities are essentially putrefactive.

In herbivorous animals, the large intestine tends to be a highly specialized organ involved in water and electrolyte absorption, vitamin production and absorption, and/or fermentation of fibrous plant materials. The colons of herbivores are usually wider than their small intestine and are relatively long. In some plant-eating mammals, the colon has a pouched appearance due to the arrangement of the muscle fibers in the intestinal wall. Additionally, in some herbivores the cecum (the first section of the colon) is quite large and serves as the primary or accessory fermentation site.

One would expect an omnivore to show anatomical features which equip it to eat both animal and plant foods. According to evolutionary theory, carnivore gut structure is more primitive than herbivorous adaptations. Thus, an omnivore might be expected to be a carnivore which shows some gastrointestinal tract adaptations to an herbivorous diet.

This is exactly the situation we find in the Bear, Raccoon and certain members of the Canine families. (This discussion will be limited to bears because they are, in general, representative of the anatomical omnivores.) Bears are classified as carnivores but are classic anatomical omnivores. Although they eat some animal foods, bears are primarily herbivorous with 70-80% of their diet comprised of plant foods. (The one exception is the Polar bear which lives in the frozen, vegetation poor arctic and feeds primarily on seal blubber.) Bears cannot digest fibrous vegetation well, and therefore, are highly selective feeders. Their diet is dominated by primarily succulent lent herbage, tubers and berries. Many scientists believe the reason bears hibernate is because their chief food (succulent vegetation) not available in the cold northern winters. (Interestingly, Polar bears hibernate during the summer months when seals are unavailable.)

In general, bears exhibit anatomical features consistent with a carnivorous diet. The jaw joint of bears is in the same plane as the molar teeth. The temporalis muscle is massive, and the angle of the mandible is small corresponding to the limited role the pterygoid and masseter muscles play in operating the jaw. The small intestine is short ( less than five times body length) like that of the pure carnivores, and the colon is simple, smooth and short. The most prominent adaptation to an herbivorous diet in bears (and other "anatomical" omnivores) is the modification of their dentition. Bears retain the peg-like incisors, large canines and shearing premolars of a carnivore but the molars have become squared with rounded cusps for crushing and grinding. Bears have not, however, adopted the flattened, blunt nails seen in most herbivores and retain the elongated, pointed claws of a carnivore.

An animal which captures, kills and eats prey must have the physical equipment which makes predation practical and efficient. Since bears include significant amounts of meat in their diet, they must retain the anatomical features that permit them to capture and kill prey animals. Hence, bears have a jaw structure, musculature and dentition which enable them to develop and apply the forces necessary to kill and dismember prey even though the majority of their diet is comprised of plant foods. Although an herbivore-style jaw joint (above the plane of the teeth) is a far more efficient joint for crushing and grinding vegetation and would potentially allow bears to exploit a wider range of plant foods in their diet, it is a much weaker joint than the hinge-style carnivore joint. The herbivore-style jaw joint is relatively easily dislocated and would not hold up well under the stresses of subduing struggling prey and/or crushing bones (nor would it allow the wide gape carnivores need). In the wild, an animal with a dislocated jaw would either soon starve to death or be eaten by something else and would, therefore, be selected against. A given species cannot adopt the weaker but more mobile and efficient herbivore-style joint until it has committed to an essentially plant-food diet test it risk jaw dislocation, death and ultimately, extinction.

The human gastrointestinal tract features the anatomical modifications consistent with an herbivorous diet. Humans have muscular lips and a small opening into the oral cavity. Many of the so-called "muscles of expression" are actually the muscles used in chewing. The muscular and agile tongue essential for eating, has adapted to use in speech and other things. The mandibular joint is flattened by a cartilaginous plate and is located well above the plane of the teeth. The temporalis muscle is reduced. The characteristic "square jaw" of adult males reflects the expanded angular process of the mandible and the enlarged masseter/pterygoid muscle group. The human mandible can move forward to engage the incisors, and side-to-side to crush and grind.

Human teeth are also similar to those found in other herbivores with the exception of the canines (the canines of some of the apes are elongated and are thought to be used for display and/or defense). Our teeth are rather large and usually abut against one another. The incisors are flat and spade-like, useful for peeling, snipping and biting relatively soft materials. The canines are neither serrated nor conical, but are flattened, blunt and small and function Like incisors. The premolars and molars are squarish, flattened and nodular, and used for crushing, grinding and pulping noncoarse foods.

Human saliva contains the carbohydrate-digesting enzyme, salivary amylase. This enzyme is responsible for the majority of starch digestion. The esophagus is narrow and suited to small, soft balls of thoroughly chewed food. Eating quickly, attempting to swallow a large amount of food or swallowing fibrous and/or poorly chewed food (meat is the most frequent culprit) often results in choking in humans.

Man's stomach is single-chambered, but only moderately acidic. (Clinically, a person presenting with a gastric pH less than 4-5 when there is food in the stomach is cause for concern.) The stomach volume represents about 21-27% of the total volume of the human GI tract. The stomach serves as a mixing and storage chamber, mixing and liquefying ingested foodstuffs and regulating their entry into the small intestine. The human small intestine is long, averaging from 10 to 11 times the body length. (Our small intestine averages 22 to 30 feet in length. Human body size is measured from the top of the head to end of the spine and averages between two to three feet in length in normal-sized individuals.)

The human colon demonstrates the pouched structure peculiar to herbivores. The distensible large intestine is larger in cross-section than the small intestine, and is relatively long. Man's colon is responsible for water and electrolyte absorption and vitamin production and absorption. There is also extensive bacterial fermentation of fibrous plant materials, with the production and absorption of significant amounts of food energy (volatile short-chain fatty acids) depending upon the fiber content of the diet. The extent to which the fermentation and absorption of metabolites takes place in the human colon has only recently begun to be investigated.

In conclusion, we see that human beings have the gastrointestinal tract structure of a "committed" herbivore. Humankind does not show the mixed structural features one expects and finds in anatomical omnivores such as bears and raccoons. Thus, from comparing the gastrointestinal tract of humans to that of carnivores, herbivores and omnivores we must conclude that humankind's GI tract is designed for a purely plant-food diet.

CARNIVORE: Reduced to allow wide mouth gape
HERBIVORE: Well-developed
OMNIVORE: Reduced
HUMAN: Well-developed

CARNIVORE: Angle not expanded
HERBIVORE: Expanded angle
OMNIVORE: Angle not expanded
HUMAN: Expanded angle

CARNIVORE: On same plane as molar teeth
HERBIVORE: Above the plane of the molars
OMNIVORE: On same plane as molar teeth
HUMAN: Above the plane of the molars

CARNIVORE: Shearing minimal side-to-side motion
HERBIVORE: No shear good side-to-side, front-to-back
OMNIVORE: Shearing minimal side-to-side
HUMAN: No shear good side-to-side, front-to-back

CARNIVORE: Temporalis
HERBIVORE: Masseter and pterygoids
OMNIVORE: Temporalis
HUMAN: Masseter and pterygoids

Mouth Opening vs. Head Size

CARNIVORE: Large HERBIVORE: Small OMNIVORE: Large HUMAN:
Kecil

CARNIVORE: Short and pointed
HERBIVORE: Broad, flattened and spade shaped
OMNIVORE: Short and pointed
HUMAN: Broad, flattened and spade shaped

CARNIVORE: Long, sharp and curved
HERBIVORE: Dull and short or long (for defense), or none
OMNIVORE: Long, sharp and curved
HUMAN: Short and blunted

CARNIVORE: Sharp, jagged and blade shaped
HERBIVORE: Flattened with cusps vs complex surface
OMNIVORE: Sharp blades and/or flattened
HUMAN: Flattened with nodular cusps

CARNIVORE: None swallows food whole
HERBIVORE: Extensive chewing necessary
OMNIVORE: Swallows food whole and/or simple crushing
HUMAN: Extensive chewing necessary

CARNIVORE: No digestive enzymes
HERBIVORE: Carbohydrate digesting enzymes
OMNIVORE: No digestive enzymes
HUMAN: Carbohydrate digesting enzymes

CARNIVORE: Simple
HERBIVORE: Simple or multiple chambers
OMNIVORE: Simple
HUMAN: Simple

CARNIVORE: Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach
HERBIVORE: pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach
OMNIVORE: Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach
HUMAN: pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach

CARNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract
HERBIVORE: Less than 30% of total volume of digestive tract
OMNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract
HUMAN: 21% to 27% of total volume of digestive tract

Length of Small Intestine

CARNIVORE: 3 to 6 times body length
HERBIVORE: 10 to more than 12 times body length
OMNIVORE: 4 to 6 times body length
HUMAN: 10 to 11 times body length

CARNIVORE: Simple, short and smooth
HERBIVORE: Long, complex may be sacculated
OMNIVORE: Simple, short and smooth
HUMAN: Long, sacculated

CARNIVORE: Can detoxify vitamin A
HERBIVORE: Cannot detoxify vitamin A
OMNIVORE: Can detoxify vitamin A
HUMAN: Cannot detoxify vitamin A

CARNIVORE: Extremely concentrated urine
HERBIVORE: Moderately concentrated urine
OMNIVORE: Extremely concentrated urine
HUMAN: Moderately concentrated urine

CARNIVORE: Sharp claws
HERBIVORE: Flattened nails or blunt hooves
OMNIVORE: Sharp claws
HUMAN: Flattened nails


Examples of Omnivore

Geneticists have known for many years that dogs and wolves are closely related. Many theories have existed as to how dogs evolved from their wild counterparts. An early theory suggested that early people kidnapped wolf pups and raised them to be tame. However, this theory did not account for the fact that wolves are obligate carnivores, meaning they feed on only meat, while dogs are omnivores. Researchers studying feral dog behavior around large cities began to notice a pattern of friendlier dogs getting more access to choice scraps of food.

A newer theory on dog evolution extrapolates this fact to dog’s early ancestors. Scientist theorize that these early ancestors were wild wolves exploiting the benefits of early human societies. All societies generate a large amount of waste, and throughout human history, we have piled it just outside civilization. This set-up rewards wolves that venture closer to humans with nutritious scraps. These scraps are not always meat. Evolution then rewards the wolves who are able to process all the scraps, even the plant material. The extra nutrition allows these wolves to reproduce more. Eventually, the group of wolves that exists around humans become much friendlier, in response to human feeding, and humans are able to domesticate them. The artificial breeding of the tame wolves throughout many centuries of domestication is why the dog looks so much different from the wolf.

In fact, the species that contains dogs Canis lupus has over 30 subspecies, which have a variety of diets. These species include the dingo, the domestic dog, and many distinct species of wolf. Wolf species that rely on large mammals as a sole source of food are seeing large declines in their populations. Other wolves, dingoes, and especially dogs, have wildly diversified their diet to coincide with the left-overs of human civilization. These populations are not in decline. Many have become nuisance animals, as they make their way into human developments in search of food. A close cousin of the wolf and dog, the coyote has invaded many subdivisions, and increased human-wildlife conflicts are the result.

Beruang

  • Manusia: Humans have a wide range of diets, from completely herbivorous to almost entirely carnivorous, but most humans eat some amount of both meat and plants.
  • Babi Pigs are often used to study human digestion because of how similar their gut is to ours. Pigs can eat a wide variety of plant an animal materials. Pigs have been known to eat carcasses as scavengers, but are rarely predators, unless they are digging up small insects.
  • Crows: Many large birds are scavengers, and will eat whatever they can find. Crows can subsist on stores of grain, small insects, and carrion.
  • Ants: Ants are some of the smallest omnivores. Ants typically harvest plant material as food, but will easily convert an intruder to the colony into dinner as well.
  • Badgers: Much like bears, badgers also hibernate, and eat a variety of plants, insects, and small animals to gain weight.
  • Chipmunks: Though consisting of a diet mostly of nuts, chipmunks will often eat a variety of animals, including insects, crabs, frogs, worms and bird eggs.
  • Mice: Mice are often opportunistic feeders, eating anything they can find.
  • Opossums: The only North American marsupial mammal, being an omnivore has allowed the opossum to spread from South America. The opossum occupies a similar niche to raccoons, subsisting on carrion and the left-overs from human civilization.
  • Chimpanzees: Chimpanzees have been found to hunt and eat small animals, in addition to their mainly plant-based diet.
  • Chickens: Chickens eat a variety of insects, but will also eat small rodents, other birds, and eggs. However, a chicken can also subsist only on grains and plant material.
  • Turtles: Many turtles, both aquatic and terrestrial will eat plants, fish, and insects, according to what they can catch.
  • Lizards: Although many lizards feed only on insects, many feed only on plants, and there are some that feed on both.

Kesimpulan

Our study provides the first whole genome assembly of leopard which has the highest quality of big cat assembly reported so far, along with comparative evolutionary analyses with other felids and mammalian species. The comparative analyses among carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores revealed genetic signatures of adaptive convergence in carnivores. Unlike carnivores, omnivores and herbivores showed less common adaptive signatures, suggesting that there has been strong selection pressure for mammalian carnivore evolution [1, 2, 30]. The genetic signatures found in carnivores are likely associated with their strict carnivorous diet and lifestyle as an agile top predator. Therefore, cats are a good model for human diabetes study [29, 60, 61]. Our carnivore and Felidae analyses on diet-adapted evolution could provide crucial data resources to other human healthcare and disease research. At the same time, it is important to note that we focused on carnivores which specialize in consuming vertebrate meat. However, there are many different types of carnivores, such as insectivore (eating insects), invertivore (eating invertebrates), and hematophagy (consuming blood). Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate if the genetic signatures found in vertebrate meat eating carnivores are also shared in other carnivores and/or if the other carnivores show different patterns of evolutionary adaptation according to their major food types. Also, non-living or decaying material eating animals such as coprophagy (eating feces) and scavenger (eating carrion) could be a good subject for investigating evolutionary adaptations by diet patterns [62].

Felidae show a higher level of genomic similarity with each other when compared to Hominidae and Bovidae families, with a very low level of genetic diversity. While more detailed functional studies of all the selected candidate genes will be necessary to confirm the roles of individual genes, our comparative analysis of Felidae provides insights into carnivory-related genetic adaptations, such as extreme agility, muscle power, and specialized diet that make the leopards and Felidae such successful predators. These lifestyle-associated traits also make them genetically vulnerable, as reflected by their relatively low genetic diversity and small population sizes.


Carnivores are animals that eat the flesh of other animals.

The carnivore’s digestion system is unable to break down the cell walls of plant vegetation.

Omnivores are animals that have adapted to eating both plants and animals.

Herbivores are animals that only eat vegetation. They are able to digest and use the cellulose that forms the cell walls of plants.

Which of these classifications do our dogs and cats belong to?

I often hear pet owners, pet food manufacturers and even veterinarians describe modern day canines as omnivores based solely on their being fed a diet consisting of both plant and animal matter. Few stop to think that today’s domesticated dogs consume what we have decided is best for them rather than using a more objective approach such as looking at the diet of their ancestors or considering their digestive anatomy and physiology in order to identify which nutritional ingredients are the most biologically appropriate rather than the cheapest, most abundant or convenient to feed.

An animals digestive anatomy and physiology slowly develops over time based on the foods they naturally consume. For example, Carnivores have become efficient consumers of other animals. Adapting to significant dietary changes can take a very long time and can lead to disease, death and the extinction of species. Imagine what would happen to any carnivore species if suddenly all they had to eat was a herbivore diet of grass and hay. How long would they survive?

Science tells us that our dogs and cats evolved as carnivores and that anatomically and physiologically they are still the same today. Here is the scientific breakdown of the entire digestive system of the dog and cat.

The Carnivore Digestive System

The first thing to note about the digestive system of all carnivores is that they are similar anatomically and the simplest of all other animal species. Because carnivorous animals come in many different sizes, the total length of their digestive tracts do vary. Generally speaking however, the overall length is considered to be rather short averaging only about six times that of their total body length, much shorter than omnivores or herbivores.

The Oral Cavity
Carnivores have a wide mouth opening in relation to their head size. This provides obvious advantages in developing the forces used in seizing, killing and dismembering prey. Facial musculature is reduced since these muscles would hinder a wide gape, and play no part in the animal’s preparation of food for swallowing. In all mammalian carnivores, the jaw joint is a simple hinge joint lying in the same plane as the teeth. This type of joint is extremely stable and acts as the pivot point for the “lever arms” formed by the upper and lower jaws.

The primary muscle used for operating the jaw in carnivores is the temporalis muscle. This muscle is so massive in carnivores that it accounts for most of the bulk of the sides of the head. The “angle” of the mandible (lower jaw) in carnivores is small. This is because the muscles (masseter and pterygoids) that attach there are of minor importance in these animals. The lower jaw of carnivores cannot move forward, and has very limited side-to-side motion. When the jaw of a carnivore closes, the blade-shaped cheek molars slide past each other to give a slicing motion that is very effective for shearing meat off bone.

The teeth of a carnivore are discretely spaced so as not to trap stringy debris. The incisors are short, pointed and prong-like and are used for grasping and shredding. The canines are greatly elongated and dagger-like for stabbing, tearing and killing prey. The molars (carnassial) are flattened and triangular with jagged edges such that they function like serrated-edged blades. Because of the hinge-type joint, when a carnivore closes its jaw, the cheek teeth come together in a back-to-front fashion giving a smooth cutting motion like the blades on a pair of shears.

When eating, a carnivore gorges itself rapidly and does not chew its food. Since proteolytic (protein-digesting) enzymes cannot be liberated in the mouth due to the danger of auto digestion (damaging the oral cavity), carnivores do not need to mix their food with saliva they simply bite off huge chunks of meat and swallow them whole.

The Stomach
Carnivores have a simple (single-chambered) stomach. The stomach volume of a carnivore represents 60-70% of the total capacity of the digestive system. Since these animals average a kill only about once a week, a large stomach volume is advantageous because it allows the animals to quickly gorge themselves when eating, taking in as much meat as possible at one time which can then be digested later while resting.

Additionally, the ability of the carnivore stomach to secrete hydrochloric acid is exceptional. Carnivores are able to keep their gastric ph. down around 1-2 (similar to industrial strength hydrochloric acid) even with food present. This is necessary to facilitate protein breakdown and to kill the abundant dangerous bacteria often found in decaying flesh foods. Dogs hold chewed food in their stomachs for 4 to 8 hours after ingestion. Only a little food at a time is released into the intestine, which it passes through quickly. This gives any bacteria that may live through the repeated acid baths little time to colonize and produce gastrointestinal distress.

Usus Kecil
The small intestine, approximately twenty feet in length in a dog, is vitally important. Without it, no digestion could take place and the animal could not survive. Because meat is relatively easily digested, the small intestine (where absorption of food molecules takes place) is relatively short — about three to five or six times the body length. The dissolved food, called ‘chyme’ at this stage, leaves the stomach in a series of spurts, controlled by a valve, the pylorus, and enters the small intestine. It is in the small intestine where food is digested and ultimately enters the bloodstream.

After a few inches, two ducts connect from the pancreas and the liver to the small intestine. These two organs supply and deliver the enzymes needed to break down the fats and proteins into their component fatty acids and amino acids. Only in this form can they pass through the gut wall into the bloodstream. These enzymes are vitally important to the carnivore. Those from the pancreas immediately start to break down the chyme into its basic components and continue to do this throughout its passage along the small intestine.

The chyme is a watery mixture but fat will not mix with water so it requires some special handling. This is where bile comes in. Bile is manufactured in the liver and stored in the gall bladder until such time as it is needed. When fat is detected in the small intestine, this triggers the release of the stored bile, which enters the intestine through the bile duct. Bile acts just like a detergent in that it emulsifies the fat to make it soluble in water. This action makes fat susceptible to digestion by the digestive enzymes.

In the carnivore there are large amounts of fat in diet on occasion and, as bile is so important, its waste is not allowed. The liver makes bile continuously, the excess being diverted to the gall bladder to be saved and concentrated until it is needed (for the next meal). When a hormone in the upper gut signals that fat is again present in the gut, the stored bile is forcibly ejected to perform its function.

Digestion of food in a carnivore is performed by enzymes produced by glands in the animal’s own body and all the absorption of nutrients in that food is through the wall of the small intestine. This is an important consideration when we compare it later to the digestion of a herbivore.

The digestion of protein and fat, with little or no carbohydrate, in the carnivore’s gut is remarkably efficient. Experiments which have measured the amounts of various nutrients eaten and compared these with the amounts passed in the animal’s excreta have shown that a healthy animal loses no more than four percent of its fat intake and only a trace of the protein.

As there is no enzyme in the carnivore capable of digesting cellulose little or no digestion of carbohydrates can take place.

The Large Intestine
The large intestine (colon) of carnivores is simple and very short, as its only purpose is to absorb salt and water and allow stool matter to form. It is approximately the same diameter as the small intestine and, consequently, has a limited capacity to function as a reservoir. The colon is short and non-pouched. The muscle is distributed throughout the wall, giving the colon a smooth cylindrical appearance.

The Carnivore Gut Flora
Practically the whole of the gastrointestinal tract of a carnivore is sterile. The hydrochloric acid in the stomach ensures that most bacteria and other micro-organisms in swallowed food are killed. Those that escape the stomach are rarely able to survive the digestive processes – they are, after all, made of protein.

The colon is the exception. This, where no further digestive processes occur, does tend to harbor a variety of organisms which form certain vitamins such as pyridoxine, vitamin B-12, biotin, vitamin K and folic acid but, as these are not absorbed through the wall of the colon, they are of little account. These micro-organisms thrive in an alkaline environment and are of the putrefactive type.

Final comments

There is no doubt that all cats are considered strict carnivores (meat eaters). By examining their digestive anatomy and physiology and observing their feeding behavior, one can only conclude that they are true carnivores all the way.

Anatomically and physiologically dogs are also carnivores. Is it incorrect to label dogs as a quasi-omnivores just because they can be seen eating a few berries in the wild or because they readily consume commercially prepared diets containing large amounts of carbohydrate. After all they eat what we feed them which may not be what they would naturally choose for themselves.

Their anatomy and physiology correctly tells the story. Their teeth, jaw structure, large stomach, relatively short and simple small intestine and a very short large intestine identifies them as a carnivore. Feeding this system incorrectly does not alter its biological makeup or the need for specific nutrients capable of creating optimum fitness and health.

It is also true that the dog and cat are both adaptable creatures and will not voluntarily starve themselves when fresh meat is not available. This means that if you feed them carbohydrate for economic reasons they will eat it and most likely survive with the minimal amount of protein they get from it. But do they actually thrive (live long and healthy lives) consuming a biologically incorrect diet? Pet food manufacturers claim all kinds of success in their advertisements however, they do not factor in all of the medical problems or the potential loss of life years associated with feeding a biologically incorrect diet.

It should be noted that all wild dogs and cats – including today’s domesticated species – are carnivores and they cannot optimally survive without ingesting nutrients derived from other animals.

NEITHER THE DOG NOR CAT SHOULD BE FED AN EXCLUSIVELY VEGETARIAN RATION.


Tonton videonya: ciri ciri hewan herbivora, karnivora dan omnivora (Agustus 2022).